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Turkish Alphabet & Sounds

The Turkish alphabet is a Latin-based script consisting of 29 letters, adopted in 1928. The alphabet is designed to represent the phonemes of the Turkish language accurately, making Turkish a highly phonetic language where words are typically pronounced as they are spelled.

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Vowels (8 letters)
  • A: Pronounced /a/ as in "father" 

  • E: Pronounced /e/ as in "bed"

  • I: Pronounced /ɯ/ as in "ill" but unrounded and closer to "u" in "cut"

  • İ: Pronounced /i/ as in "machine"

  • O: Pronounced /o/ as in "more"

  • Ö: Pronounced /ø/ as in "her" (rounded, similar to German "ö")

  • U: Pronounced /u/ as in "moon"

  • Ü: Pronounced /y/ as in "feud" (rounded, similar to German "ü")

a

e

ı

i

o

ö

u

ü

Consonants (21 letters)
  • B: Pronounced /b/ as in "baby"

  • C: Pronounced /dʒ/ as in "jump"

  • Ç: Pronounced /tʃ/ as in "chop"

  • D: Pronounced /d/ as in "dad"

  • F: Pronounced /f/ as in "fun"

  • G: Pronounced /ɡ/ as in "go"

  • Ğ: Pronounced as a lengthening of the preceding vowel, silent

  • H: Pronounced /h/ as in "he"

  • J: Pronounced /ʒ/ as in "measure"

  • K: Pronounced /k/ as in "king"

  • L: Pronounced /l/ as in "lamp"

  • M: Pronounced /m/ as in "man"

  • N: Pronounced /n/ as in "net"

  • P: Pronounced /p/ as in "pen"

  • R: Pronounced /r/ as in "rain"

  • S: Pronounced /s/ as in "sit"

  • Ş: Pronounced /ʃ/ as in "she"

  • T: Pronounced /t/ as in "tea"

  • V: Pronounced /v/ as in "very"

  • Y: Pronounced /j/ as in "yellow"

  • Z: Pronounced /z/ as in "zoo"

b

c

ç

d

f

g

ğ

h

j

k

l

m

n

p

r

s

ş

t

v

y

z

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